«Не без основания назван Фениксом»: Генри Уэлби и его затворничество

Владимир Сергеевич Макаров


Это первая из нескольких задуманных статей, посвященных памфлету «Феникс нынешних времен, или Жизнь Генри Уэлби, эсквайра» (1637) и его единственному герою – лондонскому городскому отшельнику Генри Уэлби. Авторами памфлета, включающего надгробные элегии и прозаическую часть, в которой биография «Феникса» сочетается с трактатом о блаженстве воздержания, были поэты и драматурги каролинской Англии – Шэкерли Мармион, Томас Наббс, Джон Тейлор, Томас Хейвуд (последний, вероятно, написал и прозаическую часть).

В статье показано, что датировка жизни Уэлби в памфлете почти всегда неверна и отсылает скорее к символике числа 40 в легенде о птице Феникс. Анализ сохранившихся документов позволяет предположить, что лондонское затворничество Уэлби началось позже, чем показывают авторы памфлета и, возможно, не так резко.

Оставляя детальный анализ того, как «Феникс нынешних времен» связан с традициями религиозных трактатов и театральных героев для последующих статей, я останавливаюсь подробнее на двух основных чертах «лондонского отшельника» – его любви к книгам и благотворительности. Обе требовали определенной степени вовлеченности в лондонскую жизнь и одновременно отстраненности от нее.

Возможно, на то, как в памфлете изображен «Феникс», повлияла работа Томаса Хейвуда над переводом лукиановского «Мизантропа», также вышедшим в свет в 1637 г.

Ключевые слова

Генри Уэлби; Лондон; Линкольншир; Томас Хейвуд; затворничество мирян; Феникс

Полный текст:




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E 115/400/68 – The National Archives, Kew. E 115/400/68. Certificate of residence showing Henry Welbie to be liable for taxation in Lincoln (1620-21).

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RYCH/3669 – Manchester University, John Rylands Library: Rylands Charters. RYCH/3669. Indenture of covenants between Francis, Lord Cottington, Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries, and Sir Benjamin Rudierd, kt., Surveyor of the same Liveries, of the one part, and Elizabeth, Lady Hyldyerd, widow (daughter and heir of Henry Welby, esq.), of the other, respecting the manors, lands, etc., of the said Henry Welby. (22 June 1637).

P69/GIS/A/002/MS06419/003 – London Metropolitan Archives, St Giles Cripplegate, Composite register, 1634/5-1646, P69/GIS/A/002/MS06419, Item 003. См. документы онлайн: Ancestry.com. Henry Welby.

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